Zanjan, July 16, IRNA –Soltaniyeh Dome is the 3rd biggest brick dome in the world and the Mausoleum of Ilkhan Oljaytu highlighted accomplishment of Iranian architecture and is the top three huge historic buildings in the world.
The structure is a very exquisite mosque which is well-known in the world from the viewpoint of architecture, interior design and space. Soltaniyeh Dome.
In north-western Iran’s city of Soltaniyeh, which was briefly the capital of Persia’s Ilkhanid dynasty (a branch of the Mongol dynasty) during the 14th century, stands the Mausoleum of Oljaytu, its stunning dome covered with turquoise-blue faience tiles. Constructed in 1302-12, the tomb of the eighth Ilkhanid ruler is the main feature remaining from the ancient city; today, it dominates a rural settlement surrounded by the fertile pasture of Soltaniyeh. The Mausoleum of Oljaytu is recognized as the architectural masterpiece of its period and outstanding achievement in the development of Persian architecture, particularly in its innovative double-shelled dome and interior decoration.
The dome is located 30 km east of Zanjan inside the rampart of the old city of Soltaniyeh. It is an octagonal building, each side of which is almost 80 meters. The Soltaniyeh Dome is built in the Arg city or old fortification of Sultaniyeh, the capital of Oljaytu, an Ilkhan ruler.
The old fortification was a plot of land with an area of 18 hectares, encircled by a wall which was the characteristic of old cities. It is interesting to mention that the dome was used as a template in construction of the big dome of Florence, Italy. There are eight minarets around the dome, The structure is the oldest double-shell dome in Iran.
The dome is blue and is covered in turquoise blue faience. The inside roof of the rooms are decorated with colored bricks and plasterwork. There is a tall dome on each sides of the building which are about 120 meters each. On the upper part of the building, pavilions and rooms have been constructed. On the sides of the ceiling, Quranic verses and names of God have been written in beautiful manifest handwriting, which is both a symbol of Iranian art and also a sign of the submission of Iranians to the last divine religion.
Construction of the dome started in 1302 at the orders of Oljaytu in the Ilkhan capital and was completed in 1312, that is construction of the building took almost 10 years, ranking the structure among the biggest brick domes in the world.
The dome, which is the largest in the world after Santa Maria and Hagia Sophia, has three sections of the main entrance, mausoleum and crypt. The decoration and structure of the mausoleum is in fact a turning point in the architecture of that era, creating a new style in architecture distinct from that of the Seljuk era.
The building has eight doors, eight porches and eight minarets and includes dome, Torbat Khaneh (holy dust reservoir) and Sardab (ice cellar). Recognition of the exact time of religious performances is to be the only explanation of sundial creation in the building. The Soltaniyeh brick dome is the 3rd tallest dome in the world following Florence Santa Maria Cathedral and Istanbul Hagia Sophia.
The world architecture history has seen the first double shell designs in this structure decorated with rich patterns. The exterior shell of the dome has been covered with turquoise blue and ultramarine in the burl designs.
Types of tiling, painting on stucco, lattice brickwork, wooden and stony decoration, stucco and brick stalactite and the inscription with verses of the Quran and the Hadith have been employed in building decoration.
The head of the World Heritage Site of Soltanieh Dome on the occasion of the fourteenth anniversary of the global registration of Soltanieh's Dome, in an interview with IRNA correspondent added: "Soltanieh Yadgar is the period of the Ilkhanid in Iran, which was ranked as the seventh recorded country in the World Heritage List in the year 2005. The hand of Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh was erected in the eighth century and has remained steady for about 735 years since its inception.
Mirsoussa Aniran added: "There are now a lot of historical, cultural, and natural monuments in the country that provide beautiful landscapes, but among them are indicators that are universal in terms of characteristics."
"Based on this, the global base of mechanisms, with the mechanisms, always examines the stacking of the building in terms of gypsum walled (the movements of the building throughout the year), which has so far not been the case, continued the head of the World Heritage Site of Soltanieh Dome.
"It is 14 years since the global registration of this important historical event in our country, and during this time not only the country but also for tourists all over the world, this dome is well-known and attracts many interested people every year.
By: Mehdi Rezaei
ZANJAN, Mar. 30 2016 (MNA) – The Dome of Soltaniyeh in Soltaniyeh city, Zanjan Province, was erected from 1302 to 1312 AD, has the oldest double-shell dome in Iran, and is considered one of the largest brick domes in the world. The structure has been inscribed in UNESCO World Heritage List.
By: Mojtaba Jafarloo
SOLTANIYEH, Dec. 27 2018 (MNA) – The Dome of Soltaniyeh is the biggest brick dome in the world and the Mausoleum of Ilkhan Oljaytu, located 30 km east of Zanjan inside the rampart of the old city of Soltaniyeh. The structure is a very exquisite mosque which is well-known in the world from the viewpoint of architecture, interior design and space.
By: Solmaz Shahbazi
ZANJAN, Aug. 17 2015 (MNA) – The capital city of world’s largest empire, once the largest and oldest mud brick dome, now has revealed quite a city in its heart.
Soltaniyeh was founded by Mohammad Khodabandeh, the adopted Islamic name of lkhan Öljeitü, of Mongolian descent, circa 1302-1312 AD in a track of land with an area of more than 100,000 hectares as the capital city of Ilkhnid Empire. With the city gaining the prestige, it saw the rise of many very unique monuments well recorded in the travelogue and books of sketch of the European travelers, who cited quite a few number of buildings challenging the height and prestige of Soltaniyeh mud brick dome.
Now, with the archeological discovery of distinctive and exquisite tile work, inscriptions, and stone carvings of Dashkasan and other relics, the city bears testimony to masterful craftsmen and artisans of the age as having come together from around the world in the Ilkhanid capital; today, the city hosts and fosters only a fraction of the artistic works, with Soltaniyeh mud brick dome being the most prominent relic of that history.
The mud brick dome has been resilient even after 7 centuries of natural wearing, as a free standing building in the vast geography of Iranian plateau and in the collective mentality of human history.
The building is unique from every angle possible: it was purportedly inspired by the design of Sultan Sanjar mausoleum in Merv, but with an important difference in the architectural plan; the dome in Merv is square, whereas Soltaniyeh is an octagonal structure; in terms of volume, architecture, spatial relations, the proportions of the different components, the stability and strength, aesthetics and decoration, Soltaniyeh provides suis generis example and a turning point in Islamic architecture.
Many of history annals and travelogues record the sheer scope and heights of beauty of the building, and orientalists and archeologists in the west have aptly emphasized on its importance; the main building has made of mud bricks, with an overlay of turquoise and ultramarine clays as decoration. The construction of the building was famously supervised by Khawaja Rashidaddin Fazel Hamedani, and was first intended to function as a mausoleum; the octagonal building with eight minarets and two shells of turquoise as a cupola is the most brilliant example of Ilkhanid architecture.
The building and the homonymous city had been the host of many fine arts craftsmen and artisans; the superb mosaic and fine tile work is the city’s main art products, ‘golden pottery,’ which shine forever.
The story goes that when Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh adopts Shiism, he patronized the production of golden appliances for use in the court guests and royal entourage. This triggered a large inventory of artisans working as goldsmiths producing fine golden pottery works.
Soltaniyeh dome was registered in UNESCO World Heritage List in 2005. Outside the building, a small museum provides the visitors and tourists from around the world with photos and objects of the dome. The venue is also a frequent site for handicrafts display and cultural and artistic events in different occasions.
Yahya Rahmati, the head of provincial office of Cultural Heritage Organization told Mehr News local correspondent that the geophysical studies through magnetoscopy of the Soltaniyeh dome had raised the odds that there had been a historical city just under the dome; “the first round of the studies used magnetoscopy as an introduction to well-targeted explorations in archeological sites,” he said.
“The studies have only covered small part of the dome, since the whole complex covers staggering 11 hectares of land area; the results would be a good criterion to continue the studies in the dome and the city,” Rahmati added.
“The modern archeological investigations have continued into the dome newly discovered in the northern side of the dome; to the most probability, there would be a full city under the old structures, just as one discovered in Jiroft in southeastern deserts of Kerman,” he speculated.
Photo Date: May 30 2019
تئو و کنستانتین از فرانسه و دیوید از آلمان.
زبان آموزان فارسی آموزشگاه دهخدا و دانشجویان میهمان دانشگاه تهران در رشته های علوم سیاسی و روابط بین الملل.
Teo and Constantine from France and David from Germany. Students of Persian language at Dehkhoda Institute and Tehran University students in the fields of political science and international relations.